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8. How do I configure filters?

Many of the logged packets on your firewall result from incorrect configuration. This section doesn't describe how to configure your firewall, but instead helps describe some common configuration steps you might want to take when you see rejects pop up in your firewall logs.

8.1 What ICMP traffic should I deny?

The "correct" configuration of ICMP filters in a firewall is hotly debated. The problem is that ICMP are the "control messages" for TCP/IP. If you block some incoming ICMP, then you will break communication.

The absolute minimum ICMP traffic to allow is the packets dealing with TCP path MTU discovery. Fragmenting a stream is more efficient at the TCP layer rather than the IP layer, so the TCP layer will try to discover when IP packets are being inadvertently fragmented. They do this by setting the "DF" (Don't Fragment) on all outgoing packets. When a router cannot forward the packet because it is too big, rather than fragmenting it, it sends back a "fragmentation needed" ICMP packet (type=3/code=4). The TCP stack then starts sending smaller IP packets, segmenting the data at the TCP layer rather than allow routers to fragment at the IP layer. Therefore, firewalls must be configured to allow incoming ICMP type=3, code=4 packets.

Another issue is Host unreachable and Destination Unreachable packets. Allowing these to come in through your firewall will allow connections to timeout faster, but they can also be used as a denial of service attack (by disconnecting clients from servers).

Users will constantly ask for the ability to ping and traceroute machines on the Internet. Most firewall adminsitrators will eventually give into these demands. Nobody really needs to ping/traceroute, but they really want to. It should be remembered, however, that ICMP ping responses are often used as a covert-cahnnel. (The massive DDoS attacks against Internet portals used this as a covert channel).

For more information on this, you may want to consult "Protect and Survive Using IBM Firewall 3.1 for AIX", IBM publication SG24-2577-02. See http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ for more info. I disagree with it, though.

Another good document is http://www.worldgate.com/~marcs/mtu/.

8.2 split DNS

Keep a separate primary DNS server for internal use vs. external use. An external DNS server should only have entries for publicly available servers, such as webservers, FTP servers, e-mail servers, and so forth.
 
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